Category: Education

Timely consultations relevant for family medicine, primary care, and general internal medicine topics for physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and residents. Offering CME credit for most episodes at https://ce.mayo.edu/podcast. Produced by @MayoMedEd.

September 16, 2021

Genes & Your Health Edition - How Does Viral Genetics Influence Transmission, Diagnosis, and Severity of COVID-19?

To claim credit for this series, visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/online-education/content/mayo-clinic-talks-podcast-genes-your-health#group-tabs-node-course-default1

Guests: Andrew D. Badley, M.D. (@BadleyAndrew); Matthew J. Binnicker, Ph.D. (@DrMattBinnicker)

Host: Denise M. Dupras, M.D., Ph.D.

COVID-19. Variants. The future. Does one test fit all?  Will the vaccine continue to provide protection against future variants? What makes the Delta variant more transmissible? Join the second episode of our Genes & Your Health Edition from the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine to learn how viral genetics influence transmission, diagnosis, and severity of COVID-19.

Additional resources:

Connect with the Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

September 7, 2021

Variants, Virulence, and Vaccines, Oh My!

Guest: Elitza S. Theel, Ph.D. (@ElliTheelPhD)

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006)

Dr. Elitza Theel, Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and Director of Infectious Diseases Serology Laboratory at Mayo Clinic’s Rochester Campus, discusses our immune response to vaccination and natural infection and outlines the different types of antibody assays currently available. Dr. Theel also discusses the concept of herd immunity in the context of different circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and the increased need to get higher rates of vaccination in the community as the infectivity and transmissibility of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants changes. We also discuss the status of correlates of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and the need for booster vaccine doses for immunocompromised individuals. 

Additional resources:

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

August 10, 2021

Working from the Ground Up to Impact Gender Disparities in COVID-19

Guest: Carol L. Kuhle, D.O., M.P.H. (@clkejd)

Host: Anjali Bhagra, M.D. (@anjalibhagramd)

Anjali Bhagra, M.D., and Carol L. Kuhle, D.O., M.P.H., discuss the narrative they recently published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, which outlines and highlights the further widening of preexisting gender disparities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. What can we do to identify and mitigate these issues?

Additional resources:

  • Nordhues, HC. Bhagra, A. Stroud, NN. Vencill, JA. Kuhle, CL. COVID-19 gender disparities and mitigation recommendations: a narrative review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 April 20; 96(7): 1907-1920. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.04.009

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

August 6, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: The COVID-19 Delta Variant has Changed Everything

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded August, 2021

Guest: Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland)

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)  

A fourth COVID-19 surge is blanketing the U.S., and the delta variant is the culprit.

"Where did this delta variant come from? It came from unvaccinated people getting infected in large numbers allowing the virus to continue mutating," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group.

In the past, a person with COVID-19 might infect two to four people. But with the delta variant, one person can infect nine people, according to Dr. Poland. He says if you want to protect yourself and your family, wear a mask, especially indoors, and get vaccinated with an appropriate series of one of the COVID-19 vaccines.

"These are the most studied vaccines in the history of the world," Dr. Poland emphasizes. "There have never been this many people who have received this many doses of vaccines during this amount of time with as much scrutiny as these COVID-19 vaccines have had."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland answers questions about a person's waning immunity and the likelihood of COVID-19 booster shots. He also explains the two phases of immunity and goes into detail about the extensive Federal Drug Administration license approval process for COVID-19 vaccines.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

July 30, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Stopping the Spiral of the COVID-19 Delta Variant

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded July, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

Transmission of the COVID-19 delta variant is increasing.

"We're in this constant spiral, right now,” says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group.

“The delta variant is so highly contagious,” he says. “The number of delta viral particles in the upper respiratory system is reportedly 1,000 times higher than with the original COVID-19 virus. If we can't find ways to get people vaccinated, we are going to be in a world of hurt. And I don't say that to be alarmist. I say it to be a realist, based on what’s happening right in front of us.”

But Dr. Poland says the spiral can be stopped by getting higher rates of immunization. 

"Getting a COVID-19 vaccine will prevent the development of worse and worse variants. It will prevent severe cases of hospitalization and death, even in the face of a variant,” he says. "The alternative is to lose another 600,000-plus Americans. Only this time it will, unfortunately, involve younger people."

Dr. Poland explains further, "Every time somebody gets infected with the delta variant, there's the opportunity for that virus to mutate and transmit to other people," says Dr. Poland. "This means that immunization rates to control herd immunity will probably have to be in the 85% to 95% range."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland continues to talk about the delta variant, breakthrough infections, booster shots and much more.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

July 22, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: On the Verge of Predicted COVID-19 Surge with Delta Variant

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded July, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

The delta variant is being blamed for hot spots in the U.S. where cases of COVID-19 are on the rise. These hot spots account for most cases in the U.S. They are also the geographical areas that tend to have the lowest vaccination rates. 

"It's no surprise that the two go together," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group.

"This (delta variant) is the bad actor that we predicted it would be," adds Dr. Poland. "Our seven-day average is getting up to 19,000 cases a day in the U.S. We were down to 3,000. So we're starting to see, just as we predicted, a surge as people took masks off and as restrictions were lifted before we had achieved high rates of immunization."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland expands on how the highly transmissible delta variant continues to spread. He also talks about the possibility of COVID-19 vaccine boosters, explains how the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System works, and much more as he answers listener questions.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

June 23, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Examining Reports of Heart Inflammation in Young People After Second COVID-19 Vaccine

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded June 14, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is holding an emergency COVID-19 meeting this week to discuss COVID-19 vaccine safety as it relates to news that young people may develop myocarditis after receiving a second dose of a messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine.

Myocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart muscle, is usually caused by a viral infection. But it can result from a reaction to a drug or be part of a more general inflammatory condition. Signs and symptoms include chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath and arrhythmias.

"There have been about 789 cases reported," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "And that can happen for a whole variety of reasons." 

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland details the concerns about the myocarditis reports. He also discusses the latest news on the COVID-19 delta variant, and he explains what scientists are calling the "two-track pandemic."

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

June 11, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 75: Mayo Clinic Q&A - A Dangerous Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Those who are Unvaccinated

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded June, 2021

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

If you've been vaccinated for COVID-19, you're able to go shopping, eat in restaurants and travel on airplanes without the same worry of becoming infected with COVID-19 that existed just months ago. But for those who are unvaccinated, getting infected with COVID-19 — even with just minor symptoms — should be a concern, according to Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group.

"For those who have been vaccinated, life is resuming back to a sense of normalcy," says Dr. Poland. "But for the unvaccinated, they now live in a dangerous phase of the pandemic, where we're seeing circulating variants that are much more transmissible and may cause worse cases of the disease than what happened last year at this time. I think the people who are unvaccinated may not realize that."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland also offers information on more COVID-19 studies underway and he talks about COVID-19 vaccine research protocols that will be able to help scientists with other vaccine research, such as HIV vaccine research. Also, he answers listener questions, such as, "Does someone who has already been infected with COVID-19, really need to be fully vaccinated for COVID-19 or would just a booster be needed?"

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

June 8, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 74: The World is Flat – Addressing Anosmia in Post-COVID Patients

Guest: Erin K. O'Brien, M.D. (@ErinOBrienMD

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006

Erin O’Brien, M.D., division chair of Rhinology in Rochester, MN, joins us again to provide an evidence-based update on anosmia and its prevalence in post-COVID patients. She reviews the postulated mechanism by which anosmia occurs in this group of patients, and how this effects patients’ safety, mental health, and overall wellbeing. Dr. O’Brien also gives an overview of treatment options, such as various methods of olfactory training, and what physicians need to know when counseling their patients with post-COVID anosmia. 

Additional resources: 

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd

May 28, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 73: Mayo Clinic Q&A - Dissecting COVID-19 Research and Putting Data in Perspective

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded May 24, 2021.

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

The number of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in the U.S. continues to decline. However, cases of COVID-19 are increasing in younger populations. 

"It's becoming a childhood disease," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "Children have composed over 16,000 hospitalizations for COVID-19 and about 300 have died."

Meanwhile, each day brings fresh research news, including updates on possible side effects of the COVID-19 vaccines. 

"We're collecting information as we go and have data on about 4.5 million people now," says Dr. Poland. "That's larger than we would have for any other vaccine." 

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland expands on these latest news items and puts the data in perspective. He also discusses vaccination rates, the possibility of mixing and matching vaccines for COVID-19 boosters, vaccination rates, and much more.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

May 26, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 72: Mayo Clinic Q&A - Guidelines and Nuances of Wearing a Face Mask

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in May, 2021

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

Recent COVID-19 masking guidelines announced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, continue to generate a public conversation.

"The decision about masking needs to be nuanced," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "Wearing a mask should be based on the risk of infection, the percentage of the population vaccinated, a person's own immune system, and then the role of vaccine variants with the durability of our immune response."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland discusses masking guidelines in further detail. Also, he offers an update on COVID-19 vaccine research for children, and he shares positive news about the decreasing numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

May 7, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 71: Mayo Clinic Q&A - Ramping up COVID-19 Vaccination Rate in Race Against Virus

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in May 2021.

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland)

Host: DeeDee Stiepan (@deedeestiepan)

COVID-19 cases are falling in the U.S. because 245 million doses of one of the available COVID-19 vaccines have been administered, according to Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "But at the same time, there are still people who need more information about the safety and the value of getting a COVID-19 vaccine," says Dr. Poland.

While still hopeful, Dr. Poland says he's concerned herd immunity won't be reached in the U.S. through vaccination. And that will mean more tragic deaths due to COVID-19 infection.

"My guess is, because we're such an interconnected global community until everybody's safe, none of us are safe. And we're going to likely see continued circulation of the virus, and that virus will seek out whoever is not immune," says Dr. Poland.

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland also addresses when we will need COVID-19 vaccine boosters will be needed and the latest on masking guidelines from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Plus, he will provide an update on COVID-19 treatments and how to handle those who want to visit a newborn baby.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

April 29, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence and the Importance of That Second Dose

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in April, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd

While the number of people being vaccinated for COVID-19 is dropping, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other medical experts continue to strongly encourage people to get vaccinated for COVID-19. And that means that those who are being vaccinated with the Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine should get their first and second doses on schedule.

“About 8% of people who got their first dose have not returned for the second dose and this is concerning when you're getting close to 1 in 10," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "When you measure in the short term, one dose in a healthy person offers about 80% protection. But that's not 95% protection, like you get after two doses."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland expands on why people need that second COVID-19 vaccine dose and he talks about whether people should mix and match the different COVID-19 vaccines for their second dose. He also speaks about the status of COVID-19 vaccines for young people, and he addresses listener questions about traveling, being together after vaccination, and the latest rise of additional COVID-19 variants.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

April 22, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 70: Mayo Clinic Q&A - Breakthrough COVID-19 Infections and Booster Vaccines

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded on April 19, 2021.

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland)

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd

Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group says COVID-19mutations and the virus spread are happening because of people who don't wear masks, who don't get vaccinated and who don't adhere to safety recommendations.

"I believe that we should be radically transparent and honest," says Dr. Poland. "The more time this virus passes through one person after another, the more likely it continues to mutate. As a result of those mutations, two things are happening. Some of the mutations are making vaccines and plasma monoclonal antibodies less effective. The other thing is that the virus will likely become something that we have to live with for the rest of our lives."

Dr. Poland reminds people that vaccine protection is not 100%. Breakthrough infections can occur.

"Remember that in the clinical trials, 95% means that compared to unvaccinated people, your risk is reduced by 95% — not 100%," he says. "You might have a mild case of COVID-19,but you can still spread it to others, including those who are immune compromised, such as cancer patients. That's why we continue to wear masks until we get very widespread immunization."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland talks more about breakthrough infections and the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine pause, and he answers listeners' questions.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

April 21, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: On the Verge of Another COVID-19 Surge

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in April, 2021

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

As spring break travelers return home and the highly transmissible U.K. COVID-19 variant is discovered in all 50 U.S. states, the country is on the verge of a fourth COVID-19 pandemic surge. That's according to a number of health experts, including Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group.  

However, Dr. Poland says there is some good news related to the transmission of COVID-19 on surfaces. 

"Wisdom resides in changing your mind and your recommendations as new data and science becomes available," says Dr. Poland. "What the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is doing is modifying those guidelines, saying that the risk of touching a contaminated surface and then getting infected is very low."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast Dr. Poland explains more about the CDC guidelines and he addresses other COVID-19 topics in the news, including recent data that says men are more vaccine-hesitant than women.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

April 19, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Vacation Travel, Vaccines for Teens and More COVID-19 News

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in April, 2021

To claim credit visit: https://ce.mayo.edu/covid19podcast 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)  

 If you're fully vaccinated for COVID-19 you can travel domestically and where travel is allowed internationally, according to new interim travel guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Even with those recommendations the CDC continues to recommend not traveling unless it is essential. Regardless, the CDC strongly recommends people continue to wear a face mask, practice social distancing and sanitize their hands.

Meanwhile, COVID-19 vaccine research is continuing in teenagers. "The early data show equal safety in young people aged 12 to 16," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "I think this is going to imply that, somewhere between this fall and Christmas, we're going to be able to offer the (COVID-19) vaccine to every age group."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland answers a number of listener questions, including how long the COVID-19 vaccines are predicted to last and if the current transmission research still supports wiping down household items. Dr. Poland also explains why someone who has had COVID-19 should still get a COVID-19 vaccine.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

April 6, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 69: Post-Acute COVID-19 and Central Sensitization

Central sensitization (CS) describes pathophysiologic changes in the central nervous system, including alterations in neurochemistry, CNS receptors, endogenous opioid system hyperactivity, cytokine and HPA axis dysregulation, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Collectively, these changes result in amplification of pain and sensory signals, leading to widespread pain, fatigue and other sensory sensitivities. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome are established diagnoses/manifestations of central sensitization. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to learn about Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome, a manifestation of central sensitization similar to other post-infectious forms of CS, which underlies the persistent symptoms that many people experience after initial recovery from COVID-19. Elizabeth C. Wight, M.D. joins us to talk about Mayo Clinic’s treatment approach to central sensitization, which is rooted in empowering patients with education and a framework for a self-management program. This includes stress management, moderation, positive thinking, decreasing focus on symptoms, sleep hygiene, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy among others.

Additional resources:

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 26, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Viruses Cannot Mutate If They Cannot Replicate

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in March, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd

The COVID-19 virus mutates and replicates when people let down their guard and don't follow safety protocols, such as practicing social distancing and wearing a mask. 

"I think most of us expect a major surge because of spring break travel and the relaxation of restrictions," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "And the sort of COVID fatigue that all of us feel, in one way or another."

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland addresses the potential of a fourth COVID-19 surge, new information regarding the COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women and he discusses research for next generation vaccines for COVID-19 variants.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 23, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 68: Skin Integrity in Patients with COVID-19

Guest: Jennifer L. Elmer, APRN, CNS, D.N.P.; Brianna M. Skrukrud, APRN, C.N.P.

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006)

Pressure injuries in bedridden patients present significant challenges​, which are compounded in the patient with a COVID-19 diagnosis. In this episode we discuss the problems encountered in preventing, diagnosing, and managing skin alterations in patients with COVID-19. Jennifer L. Elmer, APRN, CNS, D.N.P. and Brianna M. Skrukrud, APRN, C.N.P., two wound care experts at Mayo Clinic, discuss situations ​in which, despite best efforts, pressure injuries are unavoidable and why COVID-19 poses a great risk for skin alterations in hospitalized patients. They also discuss the 2020 position statement of National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel (NPIAP) on the management of skin alterations during the COVID-19 crisis.

Additional resources:

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 19, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: Rapid Pace of COVID-19 Vaccinations

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in March 2021. 

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: DeeDee Stiepan (@deedeestiepan

Millions of people in the U.S. are being vaccinated for COVID-19. However, discussion is ongoing as to whether people who are immunocompromised, such as patients undergoing cancer treatment, or people who have autoimmune diseases, should be vaccinated for COVID-19. 

"Both of those categories (of people) should be vaccinated," says Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group. "Those are not contraindications. Those are indications to get the vaccine." He adds that research is ongoing, but current information demonstrates the benefits far outweigh the theoretical risks. 

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Poland talks about vaccine hesitancy, and patients who are immunocompromised or have autoimmune conditions. Also, he discusses next steps in the journey to vaccinate children for COVID-19. And he reviews recent guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Control about in-person gatherings. 

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19 

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 17, 2021

Mayo Clinic Q&A: “Brain Fog” is a Lingering Condition for Many COVID-19 Long-Haulers

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in March, 2021. 

Guest:  Billie A. Schultz, M.D. 

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd

Fatigue and what's being called "brain fog" are turning out to be some of the most common issues for long-hauler patients recovering from COVID-19. The National Institutes of Health calls these and other symptoms, which can last for several months, post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2, or PASC.

Those suffering from brain fog may experience short-term memory loss, confusion, difficulty concentrating, or just feeling different than they did before they had COVID-19, even if it was a mild case of the infection. 

And Dr. Billie Schultz, a Mayo Clinic physical medicine and rehabilitation expert, says, though older patients more often to have these symptoms more often, younger people are also showing up with brain fog.

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast, Dr. Schultz says brain fog seems to be more inflammatory than infection, but there are more questions than answers about this neurological concern. Meanwhile, efforts are underway to develop rehabilitation programs to help patients recover.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 16, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 67: Finding a Solution for Every Long-Hauler

Guest: Ravindra Ganesh, M.B.B.S., M.D.

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006)

It has been estimated that as many as 10-30% of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have an array of symptoms, ranging from minor to disabling, that persist more than four weeks post-COVID infection. These symptoms have not only been identified in patients who had severe symptoms of COVID-19 requiring intensive care unit treatment, but also those who only experienced mild-to-moderate symptoms.

The exact cause of this state, most popularly called post-COVID long hauler syndrome, is still under investigation. The symptoms range from mild to disabling fatigue, body aches, atypical chest pain, loss of sense of taste and smell, brain fog, among others and many of these patients need additional evaluation and management to deal with their disabling symptoms.

In this podcast Dr. Ravindra Ganesh, the consultant in General Internal Medicine who leads the COVID Frontline Care Team (CFCT) efforts, as well as the Post-COVID Clinic, at Mayo Clinic Rochester, discusses the array of symptoms, management strategies, and research possibilities, as well as opening of an upcoming clinic in Mayo Clinic Rochester that would address the concern of the patient's and deal with the post COVID long hauler symptoms

Additional Resources:

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 3, 2021

Mayo Q & A: COVID-19 Variants and the Evolving Science

This episode is shared from Mayo Clinic Q&A and was recorded in February, 2021

Guest:  Gregory A. Poland, M.D. (@drgregpoland

Host: Halena M. Gazelka, M.D. (@hmgazelkamd)   

People may be curious, confused or critical of what seem to be changing messages related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Dr. Gregory Poland, an infectious diseases expert and head of Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group, reminds folks that messages change because data changes and the science evolves.

"As we learn new science, we use that science to modify our recommendations," says Dr. Poland. "It's not that scientists are flip-flopping. It is that new data allows us to begin expanding those recommendations."

For instance, COVID-19 cases and deaths in the U.S. are currently declining. But, Dr. Poland says, there are new data predicting the possibility of another surge of COVID-19 infections in March because of U.K. variant transmission.

In this Mayo Clinic Q&A podcast Dr. Poland talks about several issues, including the U.K. variant, vaccine development and the public’s COVID-19 fatigue.

AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Resources: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.

March 2, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 66: Monoclonal Antibody Treatment for COVID-19

Guest: Ravindra Ganesh, M.B.B.S., M.D. and Raymund R. Razonable, M.D. 

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006

In this episode, Ravindra Ganesh, M.B.B.S., M.D. and Raymund R. Razonable, M.D. join Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. to review the use of monoclonal antibody as a new antiviral agent in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. 

Who is most likely to benefit from monoclonal antibody infusions? Drs. Ganesh and Razonable, discuss recent studies on monoclonal antibody infusions in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 infections. Also discussed are the logistical challenges faced and the innovative solutions that were implemented while administering this therapy, particularly navigating the acceptance of treatment, its real and perceived side effects, and lack of awareness due to inequity and poverty. Research on the development of subcutaneous or intramuscular administration for prophylaxis against COVID-19 in patients at high risk for complications or at high risk for being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed in this episode. 

Additional resources: 

  • AskMayoExpert COVID-19 Navigator: https://askmayoexpert.mayoclinic.org/navigator/COVID-19 
  • Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, et al. REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021;384:238-251. 
  • Chen P, Nirula A, Heller B, et al. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody LY-CoV555 in outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021;384:229-237. 
  • Gottlieb RL, Nirula A, Chen P, et al. Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial.JAMA. Published online January 21, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.0202 
  • An EUA for Bamlanivimab—A Monoclonal Antibody for COVID-19. JAMA. Published online December 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24415 
  • Monoclonal Antibodies: Update on this COVID-19 Experimental Therapy  https://discoverysedge.mayo.edu/2021/02/17/monoclonal-antibodies-update-on-this-covid-19-experimental-therapy/ 

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd

February 16, 2021

COVID-19 Miniseries Episode 65: Restoring Function for Long-Haulers

Guest: Greg Vanichkachorn, M.D., M.P.H.

Host: Amit K. Ghosh, M.D. (@AmitGhosh006)

For some patients who have had COVID-19, symptoms of the disease may last long after the infection is over. Long-haulers syndrome due to COVID-19 could include profound fatigue, shortness of breath, and long-term neurological complaints, including headache, dizziness, or weakness. Mayo Clinic has launched the COVID Activity Rehabilitation Program, or CARP, to help these patients return to daily life and work. CARP is not just for folks who are trying to get back to work, but for anyone trying to get back to their baseline life.

In this episode, Dr. Greg Vanichkachorn, a Mayo Clinic preventive, occupational and aerospace medicine specialist who leads the CARP program, gives an overview of COVID long haulers and how post-COVID symptoms affects patients. He also shares the goals and results of Mayo Clinic CARP program.

Connect with the Mayo Clinic’s School of Continuous Professional Development online at https://ce.mayo.edu/ or on Twitter @MayoMedEd.